Индийская община Бней-Исраэль не может быть одним из десяти потерянных колен

Рис. 1. Представители общины Бней-Исраэль в Бомбее, начало XX века. Фото с сайта en.wikipedia.org

Полногеномный анализ 20 представителей общины Бней-Исраэль в сочетании с широким арсеналом биоинформатических и статистических методов помог уточнить происхождение этой загадочной иудейской общины из Индии, которая нередко рассматривалась как одно из десяти потерянных колен Израиля. Установлено, что популяция Бней-Исраэль сформировалась на основе смешения еврейского населения и местных индийских групп. Вклад еврейского населения в генофонд Бней-Исраэль представляет собой отдельную миграционную волну, не имеющую ничего общего с другими миграциями жителей Ближнего Востока, которые повлияли на популяции Северной Индии. Из еврейских популяций к Бней-Исраэль наиболее близки ближневосточные группы евреев, а также евреи-романиоты из Греции, а из индийских групп — популяции юга Индии, которые связаны с первыми обитателями Южной Азии. Популяция Бней-Исраэль сформировалась в начале II тысячелетия н.э. Такой поздний возраст отвергает любые предположения о связи этой индийской общины с потерянными коленами Израиля.

Индийские Бней-Исраэль — одна из наиболее загадочных общин еврейского мира. Некоторые исследователи XIX века пытались усмотреть в Бней-Исраэль прямых потомков одного из десяти потерянных колен Израиля (N. Katz, 2000. Who are the jews of India?). Согласно библейской истории, после смерти царя Соломона прежде единое государство евреев распалось на два царства — Иудейское и Северное Израильское, в котором, согласно Преданию, жили десять из двенадцати колен, на которые делился еврейский народ. Впоследствии жители Северного Израильского царства были завоеваны ассирийцами в VIII веке до н.э. и расселены в дальних пределах их обширной империи. Судьба и возможное местонахождение угнанных десяти колен служили источником многих красивых легенд и псевдонаучных спекуляций. Следы потерянных десяти колен пытались найти всюду, вплоть до Японии и Америки. Поэтому было интересно подтвердить или опровергнуть такие смелые догадки в случае с Бней-Исраэль, установив происхождение данной группы.

О ранней истории Бней-Исраэль известно немногое. В XVIII веке они жили вдоль западного побережья Индостана, соединенного древнейшими морскими путями со странами Ближнего Востока. Устная традиция самих Бней-Исраэль связывает их происхождение с потомками 7 мужчин и 7 женщин, которые были вынуждены отправиться в дальние скитания из-за гонений нетерпимого к евреям селевкидского императора Антиоха IV Эпифана, жившего в III–II вв. до н.э. Вплоть до середины XX веа Бней-Исраэль проживали в окрестностях Бомбея (рис. 1). В настоящее время почти все представители общины переехали из Индии в Израиль.

Но как хотя бы узнать, откуда пришли эти люди? Ответ на этот вопрос вполне можно получить с помощью генетики. К сожалению, существующие данные и здесь противоречивы. По данным митохондриальной ДНК, женщины Бней-Исраэль имеют преимущественно местное индийское происхождение. Данные же Y-хромосомы указывают, что мужчины Бней-Исраэль обладают не просто ближневосточными гаплогруппами, а определенным вариантом, характерным для иудейских священнослужителей — коэнов (D. M. Behar et al., 2010. The genome-wide structure of the Jewish people).

Чтобы более точно установить происхождение этой группы, авторы обсуждаемой работы провели полногеномный анализ 20 индивидов из израильской общины Бней-Исраэль, дополнив его широким арсеналом биоинформатических и статистических методов:

  • Метод главных компонент, с помощью которого определялось положение Бней-Исраэль по отношению к популяциям Индии и Ближнего Востока. Принцип этого метода основан на выявлении общих закономерностей в популяционных отношениях сравниваемых популяций. Главные компоненты получаются из перемножения частот аллелей (разных вариантов одного гена) на коэффициенты их ковариации (см. Ковариационная матрица), за счет этого один и тот же аллель может быть одновременно частью разных сценариев. Метод главных компонент позволяет выявить каждый такой сценарий по отдельности.
  • Методы ALDER и GLOBETROTTER выявляют нюансы популяционной истории через оценку двух важных параметров: а) рекомбинации — процесса обмена участками между разными молекулами ДНК, который напоминает перемешивание игральных карт в колоде (у человека он обязательно происходит при образовании половых клеток) и б) неравновесия по сцеплению — явления, при котором несколько участков ДНК передаются вместе блоками, которые формируются несколько по-разному в разных популяциях из-за того, что в разных популяциях наследуются разные комбинации сегментов ДНК. Таким образом, оба метода основаны на выявлении специфических для каждой популяции сцепленных участков ДНК и на оценке доли общих сегментов в выборках сравниваемых популяций. При этом метод ALDER на основе оценки неравновесия по сцеплению определяет правдоподобность того, что две выбранные группы являются предковыми по отношению к анализируемым популяциям; а метод GLOBETROTTER также выделяет сегменты ДНК в генофонде данной популяции, но в отличие от ALDER он проводит такую оценку не с одной парой выбранных популяций, а анализирует долю такого вклада от всей группы возможных предковых популяций. Кроме того, оба метода позволяют также установить время смешения через оценку доли рекомбинаций на поколение.
  • Анализ в алгоритме ADMIXTURE, который оценивает вклад предполагаемых предковых популяций. Их в моделировании произвольно выбирает исследователь. Но если выбранные панели аллелей равномерно распределены в геноме и не подвержены эффекту неравновесия по сцеплению, то результаты моделирования часто правдоподобно отражают вклад разных популяций, ведь моделируемые кластеры возникают не на пустом месте, а на основе реально существующих блоков межпопуляционной изменчивости.
  • Метод IBD (сокр. от identity-by-descent — «сходство по происхождению»), оценивающий количество общих сегментов в выборках сравниваемых популяций, которые бы могли попасть к ним через общего предка.
  • С помощью Q-статистики оценивали различия в истории женского и мужского населения. Для этого сравнивались различия между выбранными парами популяций, которые были рассчитаны отдельно по аутосомам (хромосомам, которые одинаково представлены у обоих полов) и по X-хромосоме. Ожидается, что если число полов в сравниваемой выборке двух популяций будет равно, то коэффициент Q будет равен 3/4 (так как у женщин две X хромосомы, у мужчин одна X и одна Y, отсюда общая доля X хромосом в выборке равна 3/4, а Y-хромосомы — 1/4). Значительное отклонение от этого соотношения указывает на дисбаланс полов и может говорить о большем вкладе того или иного пола со стороны одной из двух сравниваемых популяций, между которыми предполагается обмен генами.

    Анализ методом главных компонент показал четкое обособление Бней-Исраэль от остальных еврейских популяций. Все группы европейских и ближневосточных евреев входят в ближневосточный кластер (Middle Eastern на рис. 2). Представители Бней-Исраэль однозначно входят в индийский кластер. На первый взгляд, популяция Бней-Исраэль не имеет ничего общего с остальными группами евреев, но примечательно, что из всех популяций индийского кластера именно Бней-Исраэль, вместе с рядом пакистанских популяций, наиболее близки к населению Ближнего Востока. Это указывает на возможную примесь ближневосточного или европейского населения в этих группах. Чтобы обнаружить ее, потребовалось привлечение остальных методов.

    Индийская община Бней-Исраэль не может быть одним из десяти потерянных колен

    Рис. 2. Положение популяции Бней-Исраэль в пространстве главных компонент межпопуляционной изменчивости по отношению к еврейским и нееврейским популяциям Ближнего Востока и Южной Азии. Сокращениями обозначены следующие выборки популяций: Bene — Бней-Исраэль, ALGJ — алжирские евреи, ASHJ — евреи-ашкеназы, DJEJ — евреи острова Джерба (Тунис), GEOJ — грузинские евреи, GRKJ — романиоты (евреи Греции), IRNJ — иранские (персидские) евреи, IRQJ — иракские евреи, ITAJ — итальянские евреи, LIBJ — ливийские евреи, MORJ — марокканские евреи, SYRJ — сирийские евреи, TUNJ — тунисские евреи, YMNJ — йеменские евреи. Рисунок из обсуждаемой статьи в PloS One

    Анализ с помощью алгоритма ADMIXTURE при уровне кластеризации K = 5 выявил интересные различия между Бней-Исраэль и остальным населением Индии (рис. 3). Так, если у большинства индийского населения преобладал европейский компонент, то у Бней-Исраэль выявлена значительно более высокая пропорция ближневосточного компонента. У Бней-Исраэль ее средняя доля составляла ~30%, в то время как в большинстве индийских популяций она была в 2 раза ниже. Таким образом, генофонд Бней-Исраэль имеет иные, чем у большинства индийцев, популяционные связи с населением Западной Евразии. При дальнейшей кластеризации при K = 7 выявился специфичный компонент, преобладающий у иранских евреев (на рис. 3 показан синим), который найден с высокой долей и у Бней-Исраэль. Можно ли на этом основании сказать, что Бней-Исраэль происходят от переселившихся в Индию представителей персидских диаспор? Вроде бы найденная связь достаточно убедительна, но выявленный компонент также обнаружен и у ряда пакистанских популяций. В силу этого необходимы были дополнительные доказательства, что присутствие данного компонента у Бней-Исраэль связано именно с переселениями еврейского населения.

    Индийская община Бней-Исраэль не может быть одним из десяти потерянных колен

    Рис. 3. Данные кластерного анализа, полученного с помощью алгоритма ADMIXTURE при разном числе предполагаемых предковых популяций: пяти (K = 5), семи (K = 7). Кластеры, характерные для разных групп населения, обозначены следующими цветами: европейский — салатовым, ближневосточный — голубым, южноиндийский — изумрудным, восточноазиатский — желтым, африканский — красным, характерный для североафриканских групп — синим, для иранских и других восточных групп — фиолетовым. Аббревиатурами обозначены следующие выборки популяций: CEU — выборка лиц европейского происхождения из США, СHB — китайцы, JPT — японцы, YRB — йоруба из Нигерии, Bene — Бней-Исраэль, ALGJ — алжирские евреи, ASHJ — евреи-ашкеназы, DJEJ — евреи острова Джерба (Тунис), GEOJ — грузинские евреи, GRKJ — романиоты (евреи Греции), IRNJ — иранские (персидские) евреи, IRQJ — иракские евреи, ITAJ — итальянские евреи, LIBJ — ливийские евреи, MORJ — марокканские евреи, SYRJ — сирийские евреи, TUNJ — тунисские евреи, YMNJ — йеменские евреи. Рисунок из обсуждаемой статьи в PlOS ONE

    Согласно результатам анализа ALDER, в отношении пакистанских популяций не обнаружено никаких доказательств в пользу того, что эти группы появились от смешения между какими-либо индийскими и еврейскими популяциями. В случае Бней-Исраэль возможность такого смешения была подтверждена при сравнении 147 пар индийских и еврейских популяций. Согласно оценке алгоритма GLOBETROTTER, основными кандидатами со стороны еврейского населения были греческие евреи-романиоты, йеменские евреи, а также восточные группы из Ирака, Сирии и Грузии. Среди наиболее близких индийских групп выявилась неожиданная вещь. Наибольший вклад в генофонде Бней-Исраэль оставили популяции Южной Индии (Indian cluster на рис. 4). Эти группы характеризуются высокой долей местного автохтонного компонента, связанного с первыми обитателями Южной Азии. Интересно, что в числе наиболее вероятных групп южноиндийского населения, оставивших вклад в генофонде Бней-Исраэль, оказались бхилы, племенная группа, которая даже не имеет кастовой структуры. Доля вклада оказалась равна 55% в случае индийских и 45% в случае еврейских популяций (рис. 4). Оценка времени смешения варьировала от ~550 лет до ~950 лет назад в алгоритме ALDER и перекрывалась с оценкой, полученной с помощью алгоритма GLOBETROTTER (~800 лет). Такой поздний возраст не только исключает спекулятивные связи этой группы с одним из 10 потерянных колен, но даже и возможность возникновения популяции Бней-Исраэль в результате миграций античного времени.

    Индийская община Бней-Исраэль не может быть одним из десяти потерянных колен

    Рис. 4. Оценка вклада индийского (Indian cluster) и еврейского (Jewish cluster) населения в генофонде Бней-Исраэль, полученная в алгоритме GLOBETROTTER. Представлен наиболее вероятный вклад каждого населения в кластерах: ALGJ — алжирские евреи, ASHJ — евреи-ашкеназы, DJEJ — евреи острова Джерба (Тунис), GEOJ — грузинские евреи, GRKJ — романиоты (евреи Греции), IRNJ — иранские (персидские) евреи, IRQJ — иракские евреи, ITAJ — итальянские евреи, LIBJ — ливийские евреи, MORJ — марокканские евреи, SYRJ — сирийские евреи, TUNJ — тунисские евреи, YMNJ — йеменские евреи. Рисунок из обсуждаемой статьи в PlOS ONE

    Анализ значений Q-статистики выявил разную историю женского и мужского населения. Установлено, что со стороны еврейского населения резко выражен вклад мужчин. Дополнительно привлеченные данные по митохондриальной ДНК, которая передается только по женской линии, показали, что у Бней-Исраэль почти полностью преобладают местные индийские гаплогруппы. Таким образом, мужское население восходит к еврейским мигрантам, а женское — к индийскому населению.

    Полученные результаты позволили сделать следующие выводы. Популяция Бней-Исраэль сформировалась на основе смешения еврейского населения и местных индийских групп. Миграции еврейского населения были особой волной, которая происходила независимо от других миграционных волн из Западной Азии, повлиявших на популяции Северной Индии и Пакистана. Наиболее вероятное время формирования популяции Бней-Исраэль — начало II тысячелетия н.э. Такой поздний возраст отвергает любые предположения о связи Бней-Исраэль с десятью потерянными коленами Израиля. В формировании Бней-Исраэль участвовали восточные группы еврейского населения (йеменские, иранские, иранские евреи), а также греческие евреи-романиоты; допускается и вклад грузинских евреев. Заметная доля в генофонде Бней-Исраэль связана с южноиндийскими популяциями, восходящими к древнейшим обитателям Индостана. Важно, что еврейский компонент привнесен в генофонд Бней Израэль переселенцами-мужчинами, а южноиндийский компонент — женщинами из местного населения, которых они брали в жены.

    Источник: elementy.ru

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