Ковчеги Апокалипсиса. Хранилища от зерна до льдаСюжет

По всему миру строят экобанки в погоне за возможностью сохранить стремительно исчезающий естественный порядок.

Основать SpaceX и Tesla Илон Маск на днях назвал искусственный интеллект фундаментальной угрозой существованию человечества. Такого же мнения придерживается английский физик и популяризатор науки Стивен Хокинг и другие ученые.

Однако сейчас наша цивилизация переживает эпоху антропоцена, эпоху господства человека в глобальных природных экосистемах. И пока что человек несет ответственность за вымирание видов.

За свое существование человеческая цивилизация изменила биологическую, химическую, физическую реальность и теперь по всему миру строятся экологические банки, в которых пытаются сохранить все на свете — от семян до льда и молока млекопитающих.

В мире существует около 1,3 тысячи таких банков. Президент Международного общества биологических и экологических хранилищ Зисис Козлакидис говорит, что мы теряем биоразнообразие быстрее, чем способны его постичь.

Корреспондент.net решил рассказать о самых больших биобанках.

Хранилище судного дня

Самый известный биологический банк находится на норвежском острове Шпицберген вблизи Северного полюса. Всемирное семенохранилище расположено на глубине около 122 метров внутри склона горы.

Ковчеги Апокалипсиса. Хранилища от зерна до льдаСюжет

Хранилище судного дня находится в поселке Лонгйир

Данное подземное убежище вмещает более пяти тысяч видов основных продовольственных культур, в том числе сотни тысяч сортов пшеницы и риса.

Предполагалось, что оно станет непроницаемой современной версией Ноева ковчега для растений — спасательным плотом в борьбе с изменениями климата и катаклизмами. 

Ковчеги Апокалипсиса. Хранилища от зерна до льдаСюжет

Банк может уместить 4,5 миллиона образцов семян

Банк был создан в 2006 году под эгидой ООН на средства Норвегии — около девяти миллионов долларов. Собственный отсек в этом банке растений получила каждая страна, а места внутри достаточно для 4,5 миллиона образцов семян.

Замороженный зоопарк

В мире существует порядка около десяти «замороженных зоопарков», в которых хранится генетический материал исчезающих животных, чтобы в случае их полного вымирания можно было возродить вид.

Самый большой такой банк работает в самом популярном и прогрессивном зоопарке на планете — в американском Сан-Диего.

Ковчеги Апокалипсиса. Хранилища от зерна до льдаСюжет

Обитатель зоопарка Сан Диего / Getty

В нем хранятся порядка 8,4 тысячи образцов, среди которых ДНК зверей, птиц, пресмыкающихся и земноводных.

Сперма, эмбрионы, яйца и стволовые клетки находятся в контейнерах с жидким азотом, при температуре в 196 градусов Цельсия ниже нуля.

Ковчеги Апокалипсиса. Хранилища от зерна до льдаСюжет

 Центр криоконсервации в Сан-Диего

Из живых животных в Сан-Диего находится 650 видов и подвидов — почти четыри тысячи особей. Также в зоопарке есть богатая коллекция растений: например, там вырастили более 40 видов бамбука для кормления больших панд и 18 вариаций эвкалиптов для кормления коал.

Ковчег земноводных

Международный проект Amphibian Ark в Чикаго занимается внешней консервацией путем переселения земноводных — наиболее уязвимого класса животных — в закрытые помещения для их сохранности и сбора семенной жидкости.

Ковчеги Апокалипсиса. Хранилища от зерна до льдаСюжет

 

 

По данным руководителей проекта, около трех тысяч видов земноводных находятся в настоящее время под угрозой исчезновения из-за деятельности человека.

Вымирание лягушек, тритонов и саламандр будет «иметь свою цену для человечества», которое утратить необходимые ингредиенты для изготовления многих лекарств.

«Каждый раз, когда гибнет какой-то из видов земноводных, в то же время мы теряем то лекарство, которое эти животные могли бы помочь нам сделать», — говорят ученые.

Экзотическое молоко

В Смитсоновском национальном зоологическом парке Вашингтона хранится крупнейшая в мире коллекция замороженного молока экзотических животных, как крупных, так и мелких.

Целью проекта является поиск способов выкормить наиболее уязвимых представителей любого вида — детенышей. 

Ковчеги Апокалипсиса. Хранилища от зерна до льдаСюжет

 

 

Зоопарк является частью Смитсоновского института, у которого есть шесть разных центров, занимающихся сохранением флоры и фауны.

Музей льда

В огромной морозильной камере Национальной лаборатории льда в Лейквуде, штат Колорадо, содержится в общей сложности около 19 тысяч метров ледяных кернов, взятых из стремительно тающих ледников и полярных шапок Антарктиды, Гренландии и Северной Америки.

Источник: korrespondent.net

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