Крутое пике. История сверхзвуковых лайнеровСюжет

Сверхбыстрые пассажирские самолеты за полвека так и не смогли завоевать небо.

В США показали прототип сверхзвукового пассажирского самолета XB-1 Supersonic Demonstrator, способный долететь в Лондон из Нью-Йорка за три с половиной часа.

Разработчики самолета, получившего прозвище Baby Boom, обещают первые сверхзвуковые полеты в следующем году, а пассажирские перевозки — в 2020.

Корреспондент.net вспоминает неудачную историю коммерческого использования сверхзвуковых пассажирских самолетов.

Первые и единственные

Работы над сверхзвуковыми пассажирскими самолетами начались в шестидесятых годах прошлого века сразу в нескольких странах.

Британцы и французы, работающие каждый над своим проектом, решили объединиться в 1962 году. Их самолет получил название Concorde, что с французского переводится как «согласие».

Американцы работали, как это обычно у них бывает, сразу над несколькими проектами — Boeing 2707 и Lockheed L-2000, но до производства они так и не дошли.

Крутое пике. История сверхзвуковых лайнеровСюжет

Макет Boeing 2707

СССР удалось создать удачный сверхзвуковой самолет Ту-144. Его начали проектировать позже Конкорда, но взлетел он на пару месяцев раньше.

Выходит, что за полвека человечеству удалось создать только два рабочих сверхзвуковых лайнера. Расммотри их подробней.

Конкорд

Создан в результате слияния в 1962 году двух национальных программ разработки сверхзвукового пассажирского авиатранспорта. Основными разработчиками выступили французская Sud Aviation и британская BAC.

Крутое пике. История сверхзвуковых лайнеровСюжет

Getty

Всего было изготовлено 20 самолетов. Первый полет прототипа состоялся в 1969 году, ввод в коммерческую эксплуатацию произошел в 1976 году.

Конкорды летали под авиакомпаниями British Airways и Air France, у которых было по семь самолетов. За 27 лет регулярных и чартерных рейсов было перевезено более трех миллионов пассажиров.

Характеристики

Экипаж — три человека (командир, пилот, бортинженер), пассажиров — максимум 128.

Длина — 56 метров, размах крыла — 25 метров, высота 12 метров.

Масса пустого — 78,7 тысяч килограмм, максимальная взлетная — 187,7 тысяч.

Максимальная скорость — 2 330 км/ч

Конец карьеры

25 июля 2000 года авиакомпании Air France выполнял рейс из Парижа в Нью-Йорк, но во время разгона у самолета загорелся левый двигатель.

Крутое пике. История сверхзвуковых лайнеровСюжет

Getty

Экипаж поднял горящий самолет в воздух, чтобы потом совершить вынужденную посадку, но лайнер через две минуты после взлета рухнул на здание гостиницы в трех километрах от аэропорта имени Шарля-де-Голля.

Погибли все находившиеся на борту 109 человек (100 пассажиров и 9 членов экипажа), а также четыре человека на земле.

Позже выяснилось, что причиной катастрофы была случайность — небольшая титановая пластина от другого самолета. Когда Конкорд разгонялся, зацепил эту деталь колесом, покрышка лопнула и ее фрагменты пробили бензобак, что и стало причиной пожара.

Это первая и единственная катастрофа Конкорда за 27 лет эксплуатации.

В 2003 году полеты прекратила Air France, а затем и British Airways в связи с повышением цены на топливо.

Ту-144

Работы по созданию сверхзвукового пассажирского авиалайнера в Советском Союзе начались в ОКБ Туполева в начале 60-х прошлого века.

Первый полет состоялся 31 декабря 1968 года, на два месяца раньше Конкорда. Ту-144 также является первым в истории пассажирским авиалайнером, преодолевшим звуковой барьер.

Крутое пике. История сверхзвуковых лайнеровСюжет

Всего было построено 16 самолетов, которые совершили в общей сложности 2556 вылетов и налетали 4110 часов.

Из-за форсирования сроков Ту-144 вышел немного «сырым». Но считалось, что аэродинамика е него лучше, чем у заморского Конкорда.

Катастрофа

Советский гиперзвуковой самолет потерпел крушение также в Париже. В 1973 году Ту-144 разбился во время показательного полета на авиасалоне в Ле Бурже. Погибли все шесть человек экипажа и восемь человек на земле.

Причины катастрофы были засекречены. Считается, что крушение произошло из-за слишком резкого маневра, который экипаж должен был совершить во избежание столкновения с неожиданно появившимся французским Миражом, с которго велась фотосъемка, нарушение системы управления, либо же недопустимость для конструкций планера самолета маневра, который экипаж попытался совершить.

Рейсы

На регулярные рейсы Ту-144 впервые поставили в 1977 году. Тогда из Москвы в Алма-Ату он летал за два часа.

Но полетав семь месяцев с ним вновь произошла катастрофа — в Подмосковье во время тестового полета Ту-144 рухнул. После этого прорамму решили закрыть.

Источник: korrespondent.net

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