Маленькое Солнце. Почему Юпитер так прекрасенСюжет

Газовый гигант со своими спутниками напоминает маленькую солнечную систему.

Недавно ученые выяснили, что Юпитер является не только самой большой, но и самой старой планетой в Солнечной системе. 

По оценкам астрономов, Солнечная система появилась примерно 4,5 миллиарда лет назад. Планеты сформировались при вращении протопланетного диска, который окружал Солнце.

Твердое ядро Юпитера образовалось через один миллион лет после начала формирования Солнечной системы. Позже оно стало притягивать вещество, которое послужило газовой оболочкой Юпитера.

Юпитер можно смело назвать самой красивой планетой — причудливые узоры на его поверхности завораживают не хуже межзвездных туманностей.

Корреспондент.net решил вспомнить, чем еще прекрасен этот газовый гигант.

Мини-солнечная система

Юпитер — планета, которая больше всего похожа на Солнце. Это гигантский газовый шар, состоящий в основном из водорода и гелия, которому не хватило массы, чтобы зажечь термоядерные реакции внутри себя.

Кроме того, Юпитер с его многочисленными спутниками можно считать моделью Солнечной системы — почти звезда и вращающиеся вокруг нее планеты-спутники. Именно этим она представляет наибольший интерес для ученых.

Количество спутников Юпитера достигло 69. Их размеры варьируются от несколких десятков километров до больших галилеевых спутников, размер которых состовляет несколько тысяч километров. 

Крупнейшая планета Солнечной системы имеет, в частности, крупнейшую луну — Ганимед, который по объему превосходит Меркурий — самую маленькую планету системы.

Галилеевы спутники были открыты Галилео Галилеем в 17 веке. Это больши тела уже со сформировавшимся внутренним строением. Спутники Юпитера по свойствам значительно отличаются друг от друга.

Большие спутники вращаются вокруг планеты на расстоянии от полумиллиона до двух миллионов километров.

Внутренний спутник Ио представляет собой наиболее активный вулканический спутник. Цвета этого тела говорят о том, что поверхность постоянно изменяется.

Маленькое Солнце. Почему Юпитер так прекрасенСюжет

Спутни Юпитера Ио

 

Уникальное лавовое озеро на Ио

 

Спутники, которые идут дальше от планеты, покрыты льдом. Это Европа, Ганимед и Калисто. Недавние открытия показали, что эти спутники могут обладать подповерхностным океаном. 

Новые знания изменили представления ученых о том, что называется обитаемость вселенной. До этих открытий считалось, что зарождени жизни возможно только на поверхности планет.

Именно поэтому спутники Юпитера находятся в фокусе современной науки.

Океан Европы, как показываеи моделирование, контактирует с каменистой поверхностью, а значит выбросы вулканической активности попадают в него, создавая таким образом первичный «бульон» для зарождения жизни. 

Маленькое Солнце. Почему Юпитер так прекрасенСюжет

Спутник Европа

У Ганимеда другая ситуация — его океан зажат между ледяными прослойками. Однако он интересен тем, что является единственным спутников Солнечной системы с магнитным полем.

Маленькое Солнце. Почему Юпитер так прекрасенСюжет

 

 

Четвертый из галилеевых спутников — Каллисто. Ученые называют его эталоном в Солнечной системе, потому что это наиболее старый спутник с наиболее древней поверхностью.

Фактически на нем, как на тестовой пластинке, отпечатались удары метеоритов, начиная с момента образования Солнечной системы, в то время как на других телах Солнечной системы все это было уже смазано, смыто, изменено геологическими процессами.

Маленькое Солнце. Почему Юпитер так прекрасенСюжет

Спутник Каллисто

Другой аспект — это то, что Каллисто не является полностью дифференцированным телом, то есть внутри еще не произошло полного разделения тяжелых элементов, которые обычно падают вниз к ядру, таких элементов, как железо.

Эти спутники, так же как и вся система, погружены в огромную магнитосферу Юпитера.

Другие загадки Юпитера собраны в галерее:

Источник: korrespondent.net

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