Млекопитающие с относительно крупным мозгом более уязвимы

Рис. 1. Самой большой мозг среди животных — у кашалотов, он весит порядка 8 кг. Кашалоты — большие животные, так что это не удивительно. А вот по соотношению массы мозга и массы тела лидируют вовсе не крупные животные, а небольшие грызуны и землеройки. Вверху — самка кашалота (Physeter macrocephalus) с детенышем, фото с сайта en.wikipedia.org, внизу — малая белозубка (Crocidura suaveolens), фото с сайта ru.wikipedia.org

Крупный мозг не обязательно дает своему владельцу эволюционные преимущества. В настоящее время множество животных так или иначе страдают от антропогенных факторов. Проведенный мета-анализ показал, что крупный мозг скорее мешает животным в таких условиях, увеличивая уязвимость вида. Связь эта опосредованная: чем крупнее мозг, тем меньше детенышей в выводке и больше времени требуется для их взросления. А это сокращает возможности популяции к быстрому восстановлению численности.

Относительный размер мозга (масса или объем мозга по отношению к соответствующим параметрам тела) у млекопитающих широко варьирует. У человека он по сравнению с другими животными велик, что и не удивительно. Тем не менее, связь именно относительного размера мозга с когнитивными и прочими «умственными» способностями не прямолинейна. Иными словами, на основе только относительных размеров мозга животного нельзя предсказать, насколько оно «умное». Но тенденция существует: относительно крупный мозг связывают с лабильностью поведения и быстрой приспособляемостью к сменам обстановки, способностью к обучению и т. д.

Млекопитающие с относительно крупным мозгом более уязвимы

Рис. 2. Соотношение массы тела и мозга животных. Масса тела указана в килограммах (горизонтальная ось), масса мозга указана в граммах (вертикальная ось). Шкалы логарифмические, с разным шагом. Рисунок с сайта en.wikipedia.org

Увы, большой мозг — дело затратное и увеличивать его выше некоторых пределов не выгодно. «Цена» обладания крупным мозгом складывается из двух главных составляющих. Во-первых, мозг — энергоемкий орган, для поддержания которого требуется много энергии. К примеру, у взрослого человека на мозг приходится в среднем около 2% массы тела, но он потребляет при этом 20% всей поступающей с пищей энергии. Во-вторых, крупный мозг требует длительного развития, что увеличивает период взросления детенышей.

Какие еще могут быть недостатки у обладания крупным мозгом, решила выяснить международная группа ученых. Цель состояла в выявлении возможных связей между размером мозга и уязвимостью к вымиранию. Действительно, с одной стороны, крупный мозг может, например, увеличивать приспособляемость животного, его способность адаптироваться к изменению среды человеком. А с другой, за крупный мозг надо платить. Что же перевесит в данном случае: плата или выгода?

Исследователи составили базу данных, включающую 596 видов млекопитающих. Каждый вид по возможности характеризовали по шести параметрам (точнее, по их средним значениям для каждого вида): масса тела (г), масса мозга (г), плотность популяции (особей/км2), размер выводка, длительность периода созревания и возраст, в котором детеныши перестают питаться молоком матери (рис. 3). Однако информация одновременно по всем этим переменным была доступна только для 474 видов. Что касается уязвимости разных видов млекопитающих к вымиранию, то здесь использовали категории из Красной книги МСОП: находящиеся под наименьшей угрозой (Least Concern), близкие к уязвимым (near threatened), уязвимые (vulnerable), угрожаемые (endangered) и находящиеся под критической угрозой исчезновения (critically endangered). Если вида нет в Красной книге, его считали не угрожаемым, — это была еще одна категория в данном анализе.

Далее использовали недавно разработанный метод — анализ филогенетических путей («phylogenetic path analysis», см.: A. von Hardernber, A. Gonzalez-Voyer, 2013. Disentangling evolutionary cause-effect relationships with phylogenetic confirmatory path analysis). Изюминка этого подхода в том, что он позволяет параллельно выявлять как прямые, так и опосредованные связи между изучаемыми параметрами. А конкретные связи зависят от того, как именно модель проверяется в данном случае. Авторы тестировали три модели:
    1) Первая модель проверяла ранее выявленную закономерность, согласно которой размер тела увеличивает уязвимость (то есть вероятность вымирания). Связь эта не прямая: размер тела влияет на особенности жизненного цикла (период созревания, размер выводка: светло-зеленые параметры на рисунке), которые, в свою очередь, отражаются на уязвимости.
    2) Во второй модели в фокусе было прямое влияние размера мозга на особенности жизненного цикла, без учета размеров тела. И, опосредованно через эти особенности, — на уязвимость.
    3) В третьей модели учитывали уже совместное влияние размеров тела и мозга на особенности жизненного цикла.

Млекопитающие с относительно крупным мозгом более уязвимы

Рис. 3. Диаграмма взаимосвязей между проанализированными параметрами для лучшей модели. Серые стрелки — связи, включенные во все модели по умолчанию. Числа — значения стандартизированных коэффициентов (standardized coefficient): чем абсолютное значение коэффициента больше, тем связь сильнее. Рисунок из обсуждаемой статьи в Evolution

Анализ показал, что третья модель объясняет данные наилучшим образом, и что именно относительные размеры мозга опосредованно увеличивают уязвимость. Животные, обладающие относительно крупным мозгом, получают некоторое преимущество в виде пластичности в поведении и реагировании на изменения среды обитания. Но они также обременены факторами, которые ограничивают рост популяции (меньший размер выводка, детеныши дольше питаются молоком матери и больше времени им требуется для созревания). Оказалось, что достоинства не перекрывают недостатки и суммарный эффект приводит к повышению уязвимости в условиях трансформации природной среды человеком.

Эти результаты не изменились, когда из рассмотрения были исключены виды с низкой численностью (уязвимые виды и виды, находящиеся на грани вымирания), которые могли внести искажения в анализ. Ученые также провели раздельный анализ по трем отрядам млекопитающих (хищным, приматам и парнокопытным). Выводы остались теми же. Более того, у приматов выявилась и сильная связь между абсолютным размером мозга и уязвимостью к вымиранию (иными словами, из двух видов, особи которых имеют примерно одинаковые размеры, более уязвим тот, у представителей которого больше мозг). На людей это, конечно, не распространяется. Авторы исследования подчеркивают, что на выявленную связь стоит обратить внимание при разработке программ по защите животных и уделить повышенное внимание «мозговитым» приматам.

Источник: elementy.ru

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