Причину крупнейшего вымирания на Земле нашли в России

Масштабное магматическое извержение у реки Тунгуска привело к выделению огромных количеств парниковых газов.

В России у берегов реки Тунгуски ученые из США нашли отложения вулканических пород, чей выход на сушу запустил Великое Пермское вымирание животных, говорится в статье в журнале Nature Communications.

«Тепло, которое выделилось во время выхода этих лав на сушу, привело к тому, что соседние с ними осадочные породы выбросили огромные количества парниковых газов в атмосферу. Это событие стало ключевой точкой в истории эволюции жизни на Земле 252 миллиона лет назад», — сказал геолог Джеймс Муирхэд из университета Сиракьюз.

Ученые выделяют в истории жизни на Земле пять крупнейших массовых вымираний видов. Наиболее значительным считается Пермское вымирание, когда исчезло более 95 процентов всех живых существ.

Существуют свидетельства того, что в это время в атмосферу и океаны были выброшены большие количества углекислого газа и метана, что резко изменило климат и сделало Землю крайне жаркой и засушливой. 

Собрав новые образцы магматических пород, ученые выяснили, что 252 миллиона лет назад произошло не одно, а два разных магматических извержения.

Первое, более масштабное, привело к выходу примерно 60 процентов магматических пород на поверхность, однако оно не привело к вымиранию животных и не вызвало видимых последствий.

Второе, менее заметное извержение, произошедшее примерно 251,9 миллиона лет назад, было менее заметным внешне, но гораздо более опасным для жизни. Это излияние магмы «подогрело» большой слой осадочных пород, залегавших у поверхности, что привело к выделению огромных количеств СО2, метана и других парниковых газов в атмосферу.

Причиной этого, как рассказывают ученые, было то, что эти потоки лавы не сразу достигли поверхности Земли, а изначально двигались параллельно ей, через трещины между слоями осадочных и вулканических горных пород.

 

В результате этого возникло неглубокое, но очень большое подземное «озеро» из лавы, чья площадь была примерно в 50 раз больше, чем у современного озера Байкал. Оно подогревало обширные запасы мела, угля, нефти и других осадочных пород и заставляло их разлагаться.

Подобный механизм возникновения Пермского вымирания, как отмечают Муирхэд и его коллеги, говорит о том, что последствия массовых извержений вулканов, с которыми сегодня связываются и другие массовые вымирания, могли сильно зависеть от того, через какие породы проходили их выбросы. 

В прошлом году ученые сообщили, что причиной первого массового вымирания на Земле стала серия быстрых переворотов магнитной оси Земли, что лишило планету озонового слоя.

динозавры

Ученые развенчали миф о том, что тираннозавр мог бегать

Ученые заявили о невозможности «воскрешения» динозавров

Ученые открыли новый вид хищных динозавров

Ученые нашли след самого большого живого существа

В Китае нашли следы динозавров возрастом более 145 миллионов лет

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Источник: korrespondent.net

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