Ученые обнаружили ген, который подавляет тягу к алкоголю

Результаты исследований помогут создать новые методы лечения алкоголизма.


Генетики Юго-Западного медицинского центра Техасского университета определили ген, который подавляет желание употреблять алкоголь. Результаты работы представлены в статье, опубликованной в журнале Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.


Специалисты изучили результаты нескольких исследований, в которых проводился поиск связи между пристрастием к спиртному и различными вариантами (аллелями) генов. 


Кроме того, ученые сравнили ДНК более 105 тысяч человек. При этом к тяжело пьющим участникам относились мужчины, употребляющие более 21 стакана алкоголя в неделю, и женщины, выпивающие более 14. 


Умеренно пьющими являлись те, кто употреблял менее 14 стаканов (мужчина) или менее семи (женщины).


Установлено, что один из вариантов гена β-Klotho присутствовал у 40 процентов участников исследования (со слабым пристрастием к алкоголю). 


β-Klotho кодирует белок, формирующий в центральной нервной системе сложный белковый комплекс. Последний также образован рецепторами молекул, известных как факторы роста фибробластов 21 (FGF21). 


Комплекс связывается с гормоном FGF21, активируя его, а тот, в свою очередь, непосредственно воздействует на центральную нервную систему, подавляя тягу к спиртному.


Ученые нашли способ полностью убрать тягу к алкоголю


FGF21, как было показано в других исследованиях, может также уменьшить пристрастие к сахару и способствует уменьшению веса. Кроме того, это соединение регулирует метаболизм, циркадные ритмы и женские репродуктивные функции. 


Однако для правильной работы гормона необходим β-Klotho, поскольку у мутантных мышей с неактивным геном тяга к алкоголю не пропадала, даже если им искусственно увеличивали уровень FGF21 в крови.


Ученые надеются, что результаты их работы помогут создать новые методы лечения алкоголизма.


Ранее исследователи обнаружили, что концентрация фосфатидилэтанола, метаболита алкоголя, в посмертных образцах тканей мозга может рассказать о пристрастии к алкоголю при жизни и состоянии опьянения на момент смерти.

По материалам:


Источник: korrespondent.net


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