Вояджер 40 лет в космосе. Величайшие достиженияСюжет

Аппарат Вояджер-1 стал первым и единственным рукотворным объектом, покинувшим Солнечную систему.

Самая продолжительная научная миссия в истории началась 40 лет назад, когда две межпланетные станции NASA — Вояджер 1 и 2 отправились изучать космос.

5 сентября 1977 года NASA запустило станцию ​Вояджер-1 весом 723 килограмм. За 40 лет полета аппарат отдалился от Земли почти на 20 миллиардов километров и стал самым дальним искусственным объектом. 

Вояджер-2 был запущен чуть раньше — 20 августа 1977 года и стал первым и единственным аппаратом, посетившим окрестности всех четырех газовых планет-гигантов в нашей планетной системе — Юпитера, Сатурна, Урана и Нептуна, причем у двух последних, кроме него, пока не побывал ни один другой зонд.

Изначально станция предназначалась для исследования Юпитера и Сатурна — Вояджер-1 стал первым аппаратом, который сделал детальные снимки спутников этих планет. 

Именно благодаря снимкам Вояджера ученые узнали, что Большое красное пятно Юпитера — это гигантский ураган.

Вояджер 40 лет в космосе. Величайшие достиженияСюжет

А самое удивительное то, что оба Вояджера до сих пор работоспособны и передают на Землю ценнейшую научную информацию, хотя основная миссия должна была продлиться всего пять лет. В общей сложности с космических аппаратов было передано на Землю 625 Гбайт данных.

В сентябре 2013 года в NASA официально объявили, что Вояджер-1 окончательно покинул пределы Солнечной системы и стал первым в истории аппаратом, достигшим границ Солнечной системы и вышедшим за ее пределы.

Кстати, за местоположением Вояджера можно следить в режиме реального времени на сайте NASA.

Сигнал от первого Вояджера идет 19 часов, от второго, который находится в пределах Солнечной системы — 16, и это время постоянно увеличивается.

Вояджер-1 передает информацию с тех приборов, которые все еще включены: магнитометра и детекторов заряженных частиц и космических лучей. Другие приборы, в том числе камеры, отключены либо из-за выхода из строя, либо для экономии энергии.

Одну из последних и самую знаменитую фотографию Вояджер-1 Pale Blue Dot (бледно-голубая точка) передал в феврале 1990 года. На этом снимке Земля сфотографирована с расстояния в шесть миллиардов километров камерой, при помощи которой можно с 800 метров разглядеть заголовок в газете. 

Вояджер 40 лет в космосе. Величайшие достиженияСюжет

 Земля — маленькое голубое пятно в крайней справа полосе

Это фотография подтолкнула американского астронома Карла Сагана на написание книги Голубая точка: Взгляд на космическое будущее человечества.

К корпусам обоих Вояджером прикреплена позолоченная пластинка, на которой записано послание для инопланетян.

В частности, на ней есть приветствие на 55 языках. Кроме того, там записана классическая музыка, музыка разных народов мира, звуки природы, ряд изображений с моментами из жизни людей и животных.​

Также на пластине показано местоположение Земли и Солнечной системы относительно 14 мощных пульсаров (космических источников мощного излучения) и нанесена схема излучения атома водорода.

Вояджер 40 лет в космосе. Величайшие достиженияСюжет

Пластинка с информацией с корпуса Вояджера

По расчетам ученых, через 40 тысяч лет Вояджер-1 пролетит на относительно небольшом расстоянии от звезды AC+79 3888 в созвездии Жирафа — в одном световом годе от этой звезды.

Самые удивительные и важные фотографии Вояджера в галерее Корреспондент.net

Источник: korrespondent.net

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