Самое ценное в большинстве компьютеров отнюдь не железо, а информация которая лежит на жестком диске (далее ЖД). При этом появление проблем с ЖД часто от незнания, путают с другими поломками. Поэтому данная статья имеет целью лучше познакомить Вас с этим устройством.

Первые ЖД, как и другая компьютерная техника, были большие, медленные и мало вмещали. Те харды, которые сейчас можно купить в магазине устроены гораздо сложнее своих предшественников. Более того каждая фирма имеет так называемые коммерческие тайны производства, которые обеспечивают их конкурентные преимущества.

В общих чертах устройство состоит из жестких тонких дисковых пластин, которые хорошо поддаются намагничиванию и разбиты на секторы и ячейки. Над ними (очень близко) движутся магнитные головки, никогда их не касаясь. Головка движется под углом, над пластинами, которые вращаются со скоростью 5400, 7200 или 10800 оборотов в минуту. Такое устройство похоже на устройство обычных dwd приводов. Весь корпус герметично запакован от попадания пыли.

Самые частые проблемы с ЖД – это кабель, который выскочил из разъема материнской платы, либо из самого хард-диска. Когда он выскакивает полностью, ЖД не определяется. Частичное же его отсоединение может привести как к глюкам, так и к поломке самого устройства. Так что при появлении подобных симптомов первым делом проверьте кабель.

кабель для жд

Следующая беда всех ЖД – это появление так называемых битых секторов, нерабочих участков памяти, вследствие механического повреждения. После чего эти секторы или не работают вообще, или записывают недостоверную информацию. Для поддержки целостности ЖД призваны такие утилиты как ScanDisk, CHKDSK, fsck и им подобные. Они же могут помочь и с логическими ошибками, которые возникают при сбое ОС.

битые сектора

Однако есть угрозы посерьезнее. Когда в плавном шуме ЖД вы слышите щелчки, значит произошли столкновение головки, что находится в нескольких микрометрах от поверхности и пластины.
Для обычного режима работы на пластине предусмотрены специальные зоны посадки. Что же страшного в таком не запланированном приземлении?

Головка, которая упала на пластину может поцарапать поверхность диска и создать множество посторонних частиц. После чего нормальная работа ЖД станет не возможной.

стык головки и пластины

Другая беда – перегорание микросхем вследствие недостачи или скачка питания. Специалисты по восстановлению информации решают и эту проблему, но во-первых не всегда, а во-вторых очень дорого.

перегорание микросхем жесткого

И наконец, настоящий ужас – это ток, прошедший через ЖД и размагнитивший все пластины. Тут даже вероятность восстановить инфу после капремонта, небольшая. Поэтому не забывайте о резервном копировании. Стоимость самого ЖД не большая а копии информации на другом харде и сэкономят массу времени и денег.

магнит на жд

 

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