Холодильник – один из важнейших приборов в доме. Именно он обеспечивает свежесть продуктов питания. Люди давно приспособились хранить продукты в холодном месте. Однако времена, когда лед и устройство, что только издали напоминало современный холодильник, считались роскошью прошли не так давно. Рассказываем об эволюции холодильника: от первых способов хранения продуктов в холоде и до самых современных устройств.

История холодильника: от прототипов к смарт-техники

До нашей эры

Использование специальных помещений со льдом для хранения пищи практиковали давно. В Древнем Китае замораживали речную воду и в ней хранили необходимые продукты. Древние греки и римляне охлаждали еду и напитки в ямах со снегом, прикрытых ветками и травой.

Самые первые сооружения, которые по назначению напоминают холодильники – якхчали, куполообразные подвалы, которые строились в Древнем Иране. Насыпи сооружались из песка, глины, укреплялись яичным белком и шерстью животных. Персы наполняли якхчали глыбами снега, привезенными с гор. Древние сооружение существуют и до сих пор.

Охлаждение – залог свежести продуктов

В Средние Века практически каждый дом в Европе имел специальное холодильное помещение, которое обычно располагалось на северной стороне – подвал, глубокая яма, ниша или даже колодец. Однако иногда температура в таких местах была не достаточно низкая для длительного сохранения продуктов.

Первые попытки искусственного охлаждения

В 1748 г. шотландский профессор Уильям Каллен демонстрирует первую машину для искусственного охлаждения. Машина работала следующим образом: насос создавал частичный вакуум над контейнером с диэтиловым эфиром. При откачивании воздуха происходило понижение давления, благодаря чему диэтиловый эфир начинал закипать, впитывая тепло окружающего воздуха и охлаждая контейнер. Уильяму Каллену тогда удалось создать небольшое количество льда. Однако для массового использования такой способ охлаждения оказался слишком сложным.

Industrial cooling apparatus

1802 г. – первый «ice-box»

Американский бизнесмен Томас Мор, который занимался поставками сливочного масла, представил в 1802 г. прототип самодельного холодильника. Изобретатель соорудил емкость из тонких листов стали, внутри поместил камеру с дерева и обработал ее мехом кролика. Пространство между камерой и сталью был заполнен льдом. В таком «рефрижераторе» масло не портилось на протяжении длительной транспортировки.

Первое замораживание

В 1879 г. немец Карл фон Линде изобрел устройство с компрессором, использующее для работы аммиак. Такая холодильная установка могла производить большое количество льда. Изобретением Линде воспользовались владельцы фабрик по производству пищевых продуктов. Тогда принцип заморозки Линде использовался для создания складских холодильных помещений.

Холодильник – в массы

В 1913 г. Фред Вольф изготовил полноценный холодильник для домашнего использования – DOMELRE (аббревиатура слов «Domestic electric refrigerator»). Впоследствии изобретатели усовершенствовали разработку, и устройство стало подключаться к электросети.

В ХХ веке холодильник эволюционировал и менялся едва ли не ежегодно.

1930-е: в качестве хладагента стали применять фреон;
1940-е: появляются первые холодильники с морозильными камерами, начинается выпуск отдельных морозильных шкафов;
1950-е: первые холодильники с системой No Frost;


1983г. – изобретение роторных мотор-компрессоров, которые позволили увеличить полезный объем холодильника и уменьшить использование энергии на 40-60%;
1990-е: появились холодильники с возможностью перевешивания дверцы и перемещения полок;
1990-2000: разрабатываются системы самодиагностики, контроля температуры, отвода талой воды и информирования об ошибках;
С 1992 г. на холодильниках производители указывают класс энергоэффективности.


Тренд на «смарт» холодильники

Эволюция холодильников достигла своего предела. Теперь на рынке множество вариантов бытовой техники разного размера, дизайна, с разным набором функций. Все больше производителей пытаются внедрить в холодильники «смарт» функции, в частности:

  • Удаленное управление при помощи смартфона;
  • Интеллектуальная система диагностики;
  • Встроенный компьютер и сенсорный дисплей.

Несомненное преимущество современных холодильников в том, что они продлевают свежесть продуктов. Быстрая заморозка и охлаждение, антибактериальная защита, многопоточное охлаждение, регулировка влажности, сигнализация дверей – функции, которые когда-то казались фантастическими, а теперь встречаются практически в каждом холодильнике.

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