SpaceX потеснил Россию. Новый прорыв Илона МаскаСюжет

Американская компания стала лидером по запускам ракет в космос в этом году.

Компания Илона Маска SpaceX обошла Россию и стала мировым лидером по количеству запусков космических ракет в 2017 году.

Американская компания совершила 12 пусков с начала 2017 года, тогда как Роскосмос — 11, при этом два запуска ракеты Союз приходятся на компанию Arianespace из США.

К слову, Россия потеряла лидерство, которое оставалась за ней с 2000 года, еще в прошлом году, совершив 18 космических пусков, включая полеты с французского космодрома Куру, тогда как США и Китай — по 19.

В 2000 году на долю России пришлись 39 пусков, Соединенных Штатов — 28, Китая — пять. В 2015 году эти страны произвели 29, 20 и 19 стартов соответственно.

Новый мировой лидер

24 августа компания SpaceX совершила двенадцатый успешный запуск полезной нагрузки на орбиту Земли за 2017 год. Таким образом компания стала мировым лидером по количеству запусков в этом году. До этого момента она делила лидерство с корпорацией Роскосмос.

SpaceX запустила со стартовой площадки SLC-4E на базе Ванденберг ракету-носитель Falcon 9 с тайваньским спутником FORMOSAT-5. Этот пуск стал юбилейным 40-м для Falcon 9.  

Ракета успешно вывела спутник на расчетную орбиту, а первая ступень села на плавучую платформу Just Read the Instructions в Тихом Океане. Таким образом, SpaceX в пятнадцатый раз успешно посадила первую ступень.

С 2013 по 2016 год SpaceX совершала в среднем по шесть успешных запусков в год, но в 2017 году значительно увеличила количество.

Быстрорастущие темпы в этом году связаны, в том числе, с аварией в сентябре прошлого года, когда Falcon 9 взорвалась во время тестового прожига на стартовой площадке.

Причиной взрыва оказалась серьезная утечка гелия в криогенной системе, поэтому SpaceX отложила все запуски, и перенесла их на 2017 год.

«SpaceX не является страной, но если бы она ею была, компанию можно было бы сравнить по числу запусков в 2017 году с Россией. И SpaceX, и Россия в этом году запустили по 11 успешных миссий, Китай — восемь, европейские фирмы — шесть», — отметило накануне запуска издание Ars Technica.

Примечательно, что основной американский конкурент SpaceX — альянс United Launch Alliance — запустил в этом году всего пять ракет.

«12 запусков — это больше, чем любая другая страна или космическая компания в мире, в том числе такой ракетный гигант, как Россия, которая запустила пока 11 ракет в этом году», — отмечает Business Insider.

Всего по состоянию на сегодняшний день больше всего (23 процента) мировых пусков пришлось на Falcon 9, второе место занимает российский Союз (17 процентов), третье (12 процентов) — китайский Long March.

Четвертое, пятое и шестое места делят американская Atlas 5, японская H-2 и европейская Ariane 5. Седьмой результат — у индийских носителей Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle и Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. Российский Протон и европейская Vega (с украинским двигателем) в 2017 году запускались по два раза.

Таким образом 33 процента всех пусков, произведенных за этот год, совершила Америка, 21 процент — Россия, 15 процентов — Китаем, 12 процентов — Европа и 10 процентов — Япония.

До конца 2017 года Роскосмос и SpaceX планируют осуществить еще по 11 пусков. Компания Маска намерена по итогам этого года занять 45 процентов мирового рынка коммерческих пусков, а в 2018-м нарастить свою долю до 60-65 процентов.

 

Себе в убыток

Однако западные издания пишут, что SpaceX запустила ракету себе в убыток, поскольку масса запущенного тайваньского спутника составляет всего 474 кгм, что в 20 раз меньше предельной грузоподъемности ракеты, то есть ракета слетала фактически «впустую».

Вероятная причина заключается в том, что договор с Тайванем был заключен еще в 2010 году, но его реализаия откладывалась по разным причинам. Изначально FORMOSAT-5 должны были запустить при помощи легкой ракеты Falcon 1 — первой частной ракеты Илона Маска, которая вывела на околоземную орбиту полезную нагрузку.

Заказчик изначально заплатил 23 миллиона долларов за запуск, при этом коммерческий старт ракеты Falcon 9 оценивается 62 миллиона.

Из-за низкого спроса компания отказалась от использования однодвигательных ракет Falcon 1 летом 2011 года, сосредоточившись на разработке более мощных ракет Falcon 9.

При этом, независимо от способа запуска, стоимость для заказчика осталась фиксированной.

Власти Тайваня отказываться от давно проплаченного контракта не стали, тем более что SpaceX обязана выплатить заказчику 1,25 процента неустойки за каждый месяц просроченного запуска.

Как подсчитала инвестиционная фирма Jefferies International, чистая прибыль от каждого запуска Falcon 9 оценивается в 40 процентов с учетом возвращения и восстановления отработавших первых ступеней.

Таким образом, с учетом компенсации SpaceX не только не получила прибыль за последний старт, но и понесла убыток в 14 миллионов долларов.

Лучше только Falcon. Маск оценил украинский Зенит

Источник: korrespondent.net

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